Compressing Unknown Images With Product Quantizer for Efficient Zero-Shot Classification

Jin Li, Xuguang Lan, Yang Liu, Le Wang, Nanning Zheng; The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019, pp. 5463-5472

Abstract


For Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL), the Nearest Neighbor (NN) search is generally conducted for classification, which may cause unacceptable computational complexity for large-scale datasets. To compress zero-shot classes by the trained quantizer for efficient search, it tends to induce large quantization error because distributions between seen and unseen classes are different. However, as semantic attributes of classes are available in ZSL, both seen and unseen classes have the same distribution for one specific property, e.g., animals have or not have spots. Based on this intuition, a Product Quantization Zero-Shot Learning (PQZSL) method is proposed to learn embeddings as well as quantizers to compress visual features into compact codes for Approximate NN (ANN) search. Particularly, visual features are projected into an orthogonal semantic space, and then the Product Quantization (PQ) is utilized to quantize individual properties. Experimental results on five benchmark datasets demonstrate that unseen classes are represented by the Cartesian product of quantized properties with little quantization error. As classes in orthogonal common space are more discriminative, the classification based on PQZSL achieves state-of-the-art performance in Generalized Zero-Shot Learning (GZSL) task, meanwhile, the speed of ANN search is 10-100 times higher than traditional NN search.

Related Material


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[bibtex]
@InProceedings{Li_2019_CVPR,
author = {Li, Jin and Lan, Xuguang and Liu, Yang and Wang, Le and Zheng, Nanning},
title = {Compressing Unknown Images With Product Quantizer for Efficient Zero-Shot Classification},
booktitle = {The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2019}
}