Semantic Alignment: Finding Semantically Consistent Ground-Truth for Facial Landmark Detection

Zhiwei Liu, Xiangyu Zhu, Guosheng Hu, Haiyun Guo, Ming Tang, Zhen Lei, Neil M. Robertson, Jinqiao Wang; The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019, pp. 3467-3476

Abstract


Recently, deep learning based facial landmark detection has achieved great success. Despite this, we notice that the semantic ambiguity greatly degrades the detection performance. Specifically, the semantic ambiguity means that some landmarks (e.g. those evenly distributed along the face contour) do not have clear and accurate definition, causing the inconsistent annotations (random errors) introduced by annotators. Accordingly, these inconsistent annotations, which are usually provided by public databases, commonly work as the (inaccurate) groundtruth to supervise network training, leading to the degraded accuracy. To our knowledge, very little research has investigated this problem. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic model which introduces a latent variable, i.e. 'real' groundtruth which is semantically consistent, to optimize. This framework couples two parts (1) training landmark detection CNN and (2) searching the 'real' groundtruth. These two parts are alternatively optimized: the searched 'real' groundtruth supervises the CNN training; and the trained CNN assists the searching of 'real' groundtruth. In addition, to correct or recover the unconfidently predicted landmarks due to occlusion and low quality, we propose a global heatmap correction unit (GHCU) to correct outliers by considering the global face shape as a constraint. Extensive experiments on both image-based (300V and AFLW) and video-based (300VW) databases demonstrate that our method effectively improves the landmark detection accuracy and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Related Material


[pdf] [supp]
[bibtex]
@InProceedings{Liu_2019_CVPR,
author = {Liu, Zhiwei and Zhu, Xiangyu and Hu, Guosheng and Guo, Haiyun and Tang, Ming and Lei, Zhen and Robertson, Neil M. and Wang, Jinqiao},
title = {Semantic Alignment: Finding Semantically Consistent Ground-Truth for Facial Landmark Detection},
booktitle = {The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2019}
}