- [pdf] [arXiv]
Enriching ImageNet With Human Similarity Judgments and Psychological Embeddings
Advances in supervised learning approaches to object recognition flourished in part because of the availability of high-quality datasets and associated benchmarks. However, these benchmarks---such as ILSVRC---are relatively task-specific, focusing predominately on predicting class labels. We introduce a publicly-available dataset that embodies the task-general capabilities of human perception and reasoning. The Human Similarity Judgments extension to ImageNet (ImageNet-HSJ) is composed of a large set of human similarity judgments that supplements the existing ILSVRC validation set. The new dataset supports a range of task and performance metrics, including evaluation of unsupervised algorithms. We demonstrate two methods of assessment: using the similarity judgments directly and using a psychological embedding trained on the similarity judgments. This embedding space contains an order of magnitude more points (i.e., images) than previous efforts based on human judgments. We were able to scale to the full 50,000 image ILSVRC validation set through a selective sampling process that used variational Bayesian inference and model ensembles to sample aspects of the embedding space that were most uncertain. To demonstrate the utility of ImageNet-HSJ, we used the similarity ratings and the embedding space to evaluate how well several popular models conform to human similarity judgments. One finding is that more complex models that perform better on task-specific benchmarks do not better conform to human semantic judgments. In addition to the human similarity judgments, pre-trained psychological embeddings and code for inferring variational embeddings are made publicly available. ImageNet-HSJ supports the appraisal of internal representations and the development of more human-like models.