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L2M-GAN: Learning To Manipulate Latent Space Semantics for Facial Attribute Editing
A deep facial attribute editing model strives to meet two requirements: (1) attribute correctness -- the target attribute should correctly appear on the edited face image; (2) irrelevance preservation -- any irrelevant information (e.g., identity) should not be changed after editing. Meeting both requirements challenges the state-of-the-art works which resort to either spatial attention or latent space factorization. Specifically, the former assume that each attribute has well-defined local support regions; they are often more effective for editing a local attribute than a global one. The latter factorize the latent space of a fixed pretrained GAN into different attribute-relevant parts, but they cannot be trained end-to-end with the GAN, leading to sub-optimal solutions. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel latent space factorization model, called L2M-GAN, which is learned end-to-end and effective for editing both local and global attributes. The key novel components are: (1) A latent space vector of the GAN is factorized into an attribute-relevant and irrelevant codes with an orthogonality constraint imposed to ensure disentanglement. (2) An attribute-relevant code transformer is learned to manipulate the attribute value; crucially, the transformed code are subject to the same orthogonality constraint. By forcing both the original attribute-relevant latent code and the edited code to be disentangled from any attribute-irrelevant code, our model strikes the perfect balance between attribute correctness and irrelevance preservation. Extensive experiments on CelebA-HQ show that our L2M-GAN achieves significant improvements over the state-of-the-arts.