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Physics-Based Iterative Projection Complex Neural Network for Phase Retrieval in Lensless Microscopy Imaging
Phase retrieval from intensity-only measurements plays a central role in many real-world imaging tasks. In recent years, deep neural networks based methods emerge and show promising performance for phase retrieval. However, their interpretability and generalization still remain a major challenge. In this paper, we propose to combine the advantages of both model-based alternative projection method and deep neural network for phase retrieval, so as to achieve network interpretability and inference effectiveness simultaneously. Specifically, we unfold the iterative process of the alternative projection phase retrieval into a feed-forward neural network, whose layers mimic the processing flow. The physical model of the imaging process is then naturally embedded into the neural network structure. Moreover, a complex-valued U-Net is proposed for defining image priori for forward and backward projection in dual planes. Finally, we designate physics-based formulation as an untrained deep neural network, whose weights are enforced to fit to the given intensity measurements. In summary, our scheme for phase retrieval is effective, interpretable, physics-based and unsupervised. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves superior performance compared with the state-of-the-arts in a practical phase retrieval application---lensless microscopy imaging.