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Towards Professional Level Crowd Annotation of Expert Domain Data
Image recognition on expert domains is usually fine-grained and requires expert labeling, which is costly. This limits dataset sizes and the accuracy of learning systems. To address this challenge, we consider annotating expert data with crowdsourcing. This is denoted as PrOfeSsional lEvel cRowd (POSER) annotation. A new approach, based on semi-supervised learning (SSL) and denoted as SSL with human filtering (SSL-HF) is proposed. It is a human-in-the-loop SSL method, where crowd-source workers act as filters of pseudo-labels, replacing the unreliable confidence thresholding used by state-of-the-art SSL methods. To enable annotation by non-experts, classes are specified implicitly, via positive and negative sets of examples and augmented with deliberative explanations, which highlight regions of class ambiguity. In this way, SSL-HF leverages the strong low-shot learning and confidence estimation ability of humans to create an intuitive but effective labeling experience. Experiments show that SSL-HF significantly outperforms various alternative approaches in several benchmarks.