Learning Unbiased Classifiers From Biased Data With Meta-Learning
It is well known that large deep architectures are powerful models when adequately trained, but may exhibit undesirable behavior leading to confident incorrect predictions, even when evaluated on slightly different test examples. Test data characterized by distribution shifts (from training data distribution), outliers, and adversarial samples are among the types of data affected by this problem. This situation worsens whenever data are biased, meaning that predictions are mostly based on spurious correlations present in the data. Unfortunately, since such correlations occur in the most of data, a model is prevented from correctly generalizing the considered classes. In this work, we tackle this problem from a meta-learning perspective. Considering the dataset as composed of unknown biased and unbiased samples, we first identify these two subsets by a pseudo-labeling algorithm, even if coarsely. Subsequently, we apply a bi-level optimization algorithm in which, in the inner loop, we look for the best parameters guiding the training of the two subsets, while in the outer loop, we train the final model taking benefit from augmented data generated using Mixup. Properly tuning the contributions of biased and unbiased data, together with the regularization introduced by the mixed data has proved to be an effective training strategy to learn unbiased models, showing superior generalization capabilities. Experimental results on synthetically and realistically biased datasets surpass state-of-the-art performance, as compared to existing methods.