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Divide-and-Assemble: Learning Block-Wise Memory for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection
Reconstruction-based methods play an important role in unsupervised anomaly detection in images. Ideally, we expect a perfect reconstruction for normal samples and poor reconstruction for abnormal samples. Since the generalizability of deep neural networks is difficult to control, existing models such as autoencoder do not work well. In this work, we interpret the reconstruction of an image as a divide-and-assemble procedure. Surprisingly, by varying the granularity of division on feature maps, we are able to modulate the reconstruction capability of the model for both normal and abnormal samples. That is, finer granularity leads to better reconstruction, while coarser granularity leads to poorer reconstruction. With proper granularity, the gap between the reconstruction error of normal and abnormal samples can be maximized. The divide-and-assemble framework is implemented by embedding a novel multi-scale block-wise memory module into an autoencoder network. Besides, we introduce adversarial learning and explore the semantic latent representation of the discriminator, which improves the detection of subtle anomaly. We achieve state-of-the-art performance on the challenging MVTec AD dataset. Remarkably, we improve the vanilla autoencoder model by 10.1% in terms of the AUROC score.