AINet: Association Implantation for Superpixel Segmentation

Yaxiong Wang, Yunchao Wei, Xueming Qian, Li Zhu, Yi Yang; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2021, pp. 7078-7087


Recently, some approaches are proposed to harness deep convolutional networks to facilitate superpixel segmentation. The common practice is to first evenly divide the image into a pre-defined number of grids and then learn to associate each pixel with its surrounding grids. However, simply applying a series of convolution operations with limited receptive fields can only implicitly perceive the relations between the pixel and its surrounding grids. Consequently, existing methods often fail to provide an effective context when inferring the association map. To remedy this issue, we propose a novel Association Implantation (AI) module to enable the network to explicitly capture the relations between the pixel and its surrounding grids. The proposed AI module directly implants the features of grid cells to the surrounding of its corresponding central pixel, and conducts convolution on the padded window to adaptively transfer knowledge between them. With such an implantation operation, the network could explicitly harvest the pixel-grid level context, which is more in line with the target of superpixel segmentation comparing to the pixel-wise relation. Furthermore, to pursue better boundary precision, we design a boundary-perceiving loss to help the network discriminate the pixels around boundaries in hidden feature level, which could benefit the subsequent inferring modules to accurately identify more boundary pixels. Extensive experiments on BSDS500 and NYUv2 datasets show that our method could not only achieve state-of-the-art performance but maintain satisfactory inference efficiency. Code and pre-trained model are available at

Related Material

[pdf] [arXiv]
@InProceedings{Wang_2021_ICCV, author = {Wang, Yaxiong and Wei, Yunchao and Qian, Xueming and Zhu, Li and Yang, Yi}, title = {AINet: Association Implantation for Superpixel Segmentation}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)}, month = {October}, year = {2021}, pages = {7078-7087} }