Collaborative Optimization and Aggregation for Decentralized Domain Generalization and Adaptation
Contemporary domain generalization (DG) and multi-source unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) methods mostly collect data from multiple domains together for joint optimization. However, this centralized training paradigm poses a threat to data privacy and is not applicable when data are non-shared across domains. In this work, we propose a new approach called Collaborative Optimization and Aggregation (COPA), which aims at optimizing a generalized target model for decentralized DG and UDA, where data from different domains are non-shared and private. Our base model consists of a domain-invariant feature extractor and an ensemble of domain-specific classifiers. In an iterative learning process, we optimize a local model for each domain, and then centrally aggregate local feature extractors and assemble domain-specific classifiers to construct a generalized global model, without sharing data from different domains. To improve generalization of feature extractors, we employ hybrid batch-instance normalization and collaboration of frozen classifiers. For better decentralized UDA, we further introduce a prediction agreement mechanism to overcome local disparities towards central model aggregation. Extensive experiments on five DG and UDA benchmark datasets show that COPA is capable of achieving comparable performance against the state-of-the-art DG and UDA methods without the need for centralized data collection in model training.