- [pdf] [arXiv]
Learning To Automatically Diagnose Multiple Diseases in Pediatric Chest Radiographs Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Chest radiograph (CXR) interpretation is critical for the diagnosis of various thoracic diseases in pediatric patients. This task, however, is error-prone and requires a high level of understanding of radiologic expertise. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (D-CNNs) have shown remarkable performance in interpreting CXR in adults. However, there is a lack of evidence indicating that D-CNNs can recognize accurately multiple lung pathologies from pediatric CXR scans. In particular, the development of diagnostic models for the detection of pediatric chest diseases faces significant challenges such as (i) lack of physician-annotated datasets and (ii) class imbalance problems. In this paper, we retrospectively collect a large dataset of 5,017 pediatric CXR scans, for which each is manually labeled by an experienced radiologist for the presence of 10 common pathologies. A D-CNN model is then trained on 3,550 annotated scans to classify multiple pediatric lung pathologies automatically. To address the high-class imbalance issue, we propose to modify and apply "Distribution-Balanced loss" for training D-CNNs which reshapes the standard Binary-Cross Entropy loss (BCE) to efficiently learn harder samples by down-weighting the loss assigned to the majority classes. On an independent test set of 777 studies, the proposed approach yields an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) of 0.709 (95% CI, 0.690-0.729). The sensitivity, specificity, and F1-score at the cutoff value are 0.722 (0.694-0.750), 0.579 (0.563-0.595), and 0.389 (0.373-0.405), respectively. These results significantly outperform previous state-of-the-art methods on most of the target diseases. Moreover, our ablation studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed loss function compared to other standard losses, e.g., BCE and Focal Loss, for this learning task. Overall, we demonstrate the potential of D-CNNs in interpreting pediatric CXRs.