- [pdf] [arXiv]
DiffuMask: Synthesizing Images with Pixel-level Annotations for Semantic Segmentation Using Diffusion Models
Collecting and annotating images with pixel-wise labels is time-consuming and laborious. In contrast, synthetic data can be freely available using a generative model (e.g., DALL-E, Stable Diffusion). In this paper, we show that it is possible to automatically obtain accurate semantic masks of synthetic images generated by the pre-trained Stable Diffusion, which uses only text-image pairs during training. Our approach, called DiffuMask, exploits the potential of the cross-attention map between text and image, which is natural and seamless to extend the text-driven image synthesis to semantic mask generation. DiffuMask uses text-guided cross-attention information to localize class/word-specific regions, which are combined with practical techniques to create a novel high-resolution and class-discriminative pixel-wise mask. The methods help to reduce data collection and annotation costs obviously. Experiments demonstrate that the existing segmentation methods trained on synthetic data of DiffuMask can achieve a competitive performance over the counterpart of real data (VOC 2012, Cityscapes). For some classes (e.g., bird), DiffuMask presents promising performance, close to the state-of-the-art result of real data (within 3% mIoU gap). Moreover, in the open-vocabulary segmentation (zero-shot) setting, DiffuMask achieves a new SOTA result on Unseen class of VOC 2012.