- [pdf] [arXiv]
PanFlowNet: A Flow-Based Deep Network for Pan-Sharpening
Pan-sharpening aims to generate a high-resolution multispectral (HRMS) image by integrating the spectral information of a low-resolution multispectral (LRMS) image with the texture details of a high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) image. It essentially inherits the ill-posed nature of the super-resolution (SR) task that diverse HRMS images can degrade into an LRMS image. However, existing deep learning-based methods recover only one HRMS image from the LRMS image and PAN image using a deterministic mapping, thus ignoring the diversity of the HRMS image. In this paper, to alleviate this ill-posed issue, we propose a flow-based pan-sharpening network (PanFlowNet) to directly learn the conditional distribution of HRMS image given LRMS image and PAN image instead of learning a deterministic mapping. Specifically, we first transform this unknown conditional distribution into a given Gaussian distribution by an invertible network, and the conditional distribution can thus be explicitly defined. Then, we design an invertible Conditional Affine Coupling Block (CACB) and further build the architecture of PanFlowNet by stacking a series of CACBs. Finally, the PanFlowNet is trained by maximizing the log-likelihood of the conditional distribution given a training set and can then be used to predict diverse HRMS images. The experimental results verify that the proposed PanFlowNet can generate various HRMS images given an LRMS image and a PAN image. Additionally, the experimental results on different kinds of satellite datasets also demonstrate the superiority of our PanFlowNet compared with other state-of-the-art methods both visually and quantitatively. Code is available at Github.