- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
Gradient Estimation for Unseen Domain Risk Minimization with Pre-Trained Models
Domain generalization aims to build generalized models that perform well on unseen domains when only source domains are available for model optimization. Recent studies have shown that large-scale pre-trained models can enhance domain generalization by leveraging their generalization power. However, these pre-trained models lack target task-specific knowledge yet due to discrepancies between the pre-training objectives and the target task. Although the task-specific knowledge could be learned from source domains by fine-tuning, this hurts the generalization power of pre-trained models due to gradient bias toward the source domains. To alleviate this problem, we propose a new domain generalization method that estimates unobservable gradients that reduce potential risks in unseen domains using a large-scale pre-trained model. These estimated unobservable gradients allow the pre-trained model to learn task-specific knowledge further while preserving its generalization ability by relieving the gradient bias. Our experimental results show that our method outperforms baseline methods on DomainBed, a standard benchmark in domain generalization. We also provide extensive analyses to demonstrate that the pre-trained model can learn task-specific knowledge without sacrificing its generalization power.