- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
Non-Semantic Evaluation of Image Forensics Tools: Methodology and Database
We propose a new method to evaluate image forensics tools, that characterizes what image cues are being used by each detector. Our method enables effortless creation of an arbitrarily large dataset of carefully tampered images in which controlled detection cues are present. Starting with raw images, we alter aspects of the image formation pipeline inside a mask, while leaving the rest of the image intact. This does not change the image's interpretation; we thus call such alterations "non-semantic", as they yield no semantic inconsistencies. This method avoids the painful and often biased creation of convincing semantics. All aspects of image formation (noise, CFA, compression pattern and quality, etc.) can vary independently in both the authentic and tampered parts of the image. Alteration of a specific cue enables precise evaluation of the many forgery detectors that rely on this cue, and of the sensitivity of more generic forensic tools to each specific trace of forgery, and can be used to guide the combination of different methods. Based on this methodology, we create a database and conduct an evaluation of the main state-of-the-art image forensics tools, where we characterize the performance of each method with respect to each detection cue. Check qbammey.github.io/trace for the database and code.