- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
On the Effectiveness of Small Input Noise for Defending Against Query-Based Black-Box Attacks
While deep neural networks show unprecedented performance in various tasks, the vulnerability to adversarial examples hinders their deployment in safety-critical systems. Many studies have shown that attacks are also possible even in a black-box setting where an adversary cannot access the target model's internal information. Most black-box attacks are based on queries, each of which obtains the target model's output for an input, and many recent studies focus on reducing the number of required queries. In this paper, we pay attention to an implicit assumption of query-based black-box adversarial attacks that the target model's output exactly corresponds to the query input. If some randomness is introduced into the model, it can break the assumption, and thus, query-based attacks may have tremendous difficulty in both gradient estimation and local search, which are the core of their attack process. From this motivation, we observe even a small additive input noise can neutralize most query-based attacks and name this simple yet effective approach Small Noise Defense (SND). We analyze how SND can defend against query-based black-box attacks and demonstrate its effectiveness against eight state-of-the-art attacks with CIFAR-10 and ImageNet datasets. Even with strong defense ability, SND almost maintains the original classification accuracy and computational speed. SND is readily applicable to pre-trained models by adding only one line of code at the inference.