LIP: Local Importance-Based Pooling

Ziteng Gao, Limin Wang, Gangshan Wu; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2019, pp. 3355-3364


Spatial downsampling layers are favored in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to downscale feature maps for larger receptive fields and less memory consumption. However, for discriminative tasks, there is a possibility that these layers lose the discriminative details due to improper pooling strategies, which could hinder the learning process and eventually result in suboptimal models. In this paper, we present a unified framework over the existing downsampling layers (e.g., average pooling, max pooling, and strided convolution) from a local importance view. In this framework, we analyze the issues of these widely-used pooling layers and figure out the criteria for designing an effective downsampling layer. According to this analysis, we propose a conceptually simple, general, and effective pooling layer based on local importance modeling, termed as Local Importance-based Pooling (LIP). LIP can automatically enhance discriminative features during the downsampling procedure by learning adaptive importance weights based on inputs. Experiment results show that LIP consistently yields notable gains with different depths and different architectures on ImageNet classification. In the challenging MS COCO dataset, detectors with our LIP-ResNets as backbones obtain a consistent improvement (>=1.4%) over the vanilla ResNets, and especially achieve the current state-of-the-art performance in detecting small objects under the single-scale testing scheme.

Related Material

author = {Gao, Ziteng and Wang, Limin and Wu, Gangshan},
title = {LIP: Local Importance-Based Pooling},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
month = {October},
year = {2019}