Fisher and VLAD with FLAIR

Koen E. A. van de Sande, Cees G. M. Snoek, Arnold W. M. Smeulders; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2014, pp. 2369-2376


A major computational bottleneck in many current algorithms is the evaluation of arbitrary boxes. Dense local analysis and powerful bag-of-word encodings, such as Fisher vectors and VLAD, lead to improved accuracy at the expense of increased computation time. Where a simplification in the representation is tempting, we exploit novel representations while maintaining accuracy. We start from state-of-the-art, fast selective search, but our method will apply to any initial box-partitioning. By representing the picture as sparse integral images, one per codeword, we achieve a Fast Local Area Independent Representation. FLAIR allows for very fast evaluation of any box encoding and still enables spatial pooling. In FLAIR we achieve exact VLAD's difference coding, even with L2 and power-norms. Finally, by multiple codeword assignments, we achieve exact and approximate Fisher vectors with FLAIR. The results are a 18x speedup, which enables us to set a new state-of-the-art on the challenging 2010 PASCAL VOC objects and the fine-grained categorization of the CUB-2011 200 bird species. Plus, we rank number one in the official ImageNet 2013 detection challenge.

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author = {van de Sande, Koen E. A. and Snoek, Cees G. M. and Smeulders, Arnold W. M.},
title = {Fisher and VLAD with FLAIR},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2014}