Deformable Part Models are Convolutional Neural Networks

Ross Girshick, Forrest Iandola, Trevor Darrell, Jitendra Malik; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2015, pp. 437-446


Deformable part models (DPMs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are two widely used tools for visual recognition. They are typically viewed as distinct approaches: DPMs are graphical models (Markov random fields), while CNNs are "black-box" non-linear classifiers. In this paper, we show that a DPM can be formulated as a CNN, thus providing a synthesis of the two ideas. Our construction involves unrolling the DPM inference algorithm and mapping each step to an equivalent CNN layer. From this perspective, it is natural to replace the standard image features used in DPMs with a learned feature extractor. We call the resulting model a DeepPyramid DPM and experimentally validate it on PASCAL VOC object detection. We find that DeepPyramid DPMs significantly outperform DPMs based on histograms of oriented gradients features (HOG) and slightly outperforms a comparable version of the recently introduced R-CNN detection system, while running significantly faster.

Related Material

author = {Girshick, Ross and Iandola, Forrest and Darrell, Trevor and Malik, Jitendra},
title = {Deformable Part Models are Convolutional Neural Networks},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2015}