Kernel Pooling for Convolutional Neural Networks

Yin Cui, Feng Zhou, Jiang Wang, Xiao Liu, Yuanqing Lin, Serge Belongie; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017, pp. 2921-2930


Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with Bilinear Pooling, initially in their full form and later using compact representations, have yielded impressive performance gains on a wide range of visual tasks, including fine-grained visual categorization, visual question answering, face recognition, and description of texture and style. The key to their success lies in the spatially invariant modeling of pairwise (2nd order) feature interactions. In this work, we propose a general pooling framework that captures higher order interactions of features in the form of kernels. We demonstrate how to approximate kernels such as Gaussian RBF up to a given order using compact explicit feature maps in a parameter-free manner. Combined with CNNs, the composition of the kernel can be learned from data in an end-to-end fashion via error back-propagation. The proposed kernel pooling scheme is evaluated in terms of both kernel approximation error and visual recognition accuracy. Experimental evaluations demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on commonly used fine-grained recognition datasets.

Related Material

author = {Cui, Yin and Zhou, Feng and Wang, Jiang and Liu, Xiao and Lin, Yuanqing and Belongie, Serge},
title = {Kernel Pooling for Convolutional Neural Networks},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {July},
year = {2017}