Semantic Regularisation for Recurrent Image Annotation

Feng Liu, Tao Xiang, Timothy M. Hospedales, Wankou Yang, Changyin Sun; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017, pp. 2872-2880


The "CNN-RNN" design pattern is increasingly widely applied in a variety of image annotation tasks including multi-label classification and captioning. Existing models use the weakly semantic CNN hidden layer or its transform as the image embedding that provides the interface between the CNN and RNN. This leaves the RNN overstretched with two jobs: predicting the visual concepts and modelling their correlations for generating structured annotation output. Importantly this makes the end-to-end training of the CNN and RNN slow and ineffective due to the difficulty of back propagating gradients through the RNN to train the CNN. We propose a simple modification to the design pattern that makes learning more effective and efficient. Specifically, we propose to use a semantically regularised embedding layer as the interface between the CNN and RNN. Regularising the interface can partially or completely decouple the learning problems, allowing each to be more effectively trained and jointly training much more efficient. Extensive experiments show that state-of-the art performance is achieved on multi-label classification as well as image captioning.

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[pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
author = {Liu, Feng and Xiang, Tao and Hospedales, Timothy M. and Yang, Wankou and Sun, Changyin},
title = {Semantic Regularisation for Recurrent Image Annotation},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {July},
year = {2017}