Deep Sparse Coding for Invariant Multimodal Halle Berry Neurons

Edward Kim, Darryl Hannan, Garrett Kenyon; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2018, pp. 1111-1120


Deep feed-forward convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become ubiquitous in virtually all machine learning and computer vision challenges; however, advancements in CNNs have arguably reached an engineering saturation point where incremental novelty results in minor performance gains. Although there is evidence that object classification has reached human levels on narrowly defined tasks, for general applications, the biological visual system is far superior to that of any computer. Research reveals there are numerous missing components in feed-forward deep neural networks that are critical in mammalian vision. The brain does not work solely in a feed-forward fashion, but rather all of the neurons are in competition with each other; neurons are integrating information in a bottom up and top down fashion and incorporating expectation and feedback in the modeling process. Furthermore, our visual cortex is working in tandem with our parietal lobe, integrating sensory information from various modalities. In our work, we sought to improve upon the standard feed-forward deep learning model by augmenting them with biologically inspired concepts of sparsity, top down feedback, and lateral inhibition. We define our model as a sparse coding problem using hierarchical layers. We solve the sparse coding problem with an additional top down feedback error driving the dynamics of the neural network. While building and observing the behavior of our model, we were fascinated that multimodal, invariant neurons naturally emerged that mimicked, "Halle Berry neurons" found in the human brain. These neurons trained in our sparse model learned to respond to high level concepts from multiple modalities, which is not the case with a standard feed-forward autoencoder. Furthermore, our sparse representation of multimodal signals demonstrates qualitative and quantitative superiority to the standard feed-forward joint embedding in common vision and machine learning tasks.

Related Material

[pdf] [arXiv]
author = {Kim, Edward and Hannan, Darryl and Kenyon, Garrett},
title = {Deep Sparse Coding for Invariant Multimodal Halle Berry Neurons},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2018}