End-to-End Convolutional Semantic Embeddings

Quanzeng You, Zhengyou Zhang, Jiebo Luo; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2018, pp. 5735-5744


Semantic embeddings for images and sentences have been widely studied recently. The ability of deep neural networks on learning rich and robust visual and textual representations offers the opportunity to develop effective semantic embedding models. Currently, the state-of-the-art approaches in semantic learning first employ deep neural networks to encode images and sentences into a common semantic space. Then, the learning objective is to ensure a larger similarity between matching image and sentence pairs than randomly sampled pairs. Usually, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are employed for learning image and sentence representations, respectively. On one hand, CNNs are known to produce robust visual features at different levels and RNNs are known for capturing dependencies in sequential data. Therefore, this simple framework can be sufficiently effective in learning visual and textual semantics. On the other hand, different from CNNs, RNNs cannot produce middle-level (e.g. phrase-level in text) representations. As a result, only global representations are available for semantic learning. This could potentially limit the performance of the model due to the hierarchical structures in images and sentences. In this work, we apply Convolutional Neural Networks to process both images and sentences. Consequently, we can employ mid-level representations to assist global semantic learning by introducing a new learning objective on the convolutional layers. The experimental results show that our proposed textual CNN models with the new learning objective lead to better performance than the state-of-the-art approaches.

Related Material

author = {You, Quanzeng and Zhang, Zhengyou and Luo, Jiebo},
title = {End-to-End Convolutional Semantic Embeddings},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2018}