Probabilistic Label Relation Graphs With Ising Models

Nan Ding, Jia Deng, Kevin P. Murphy, Hartmut Neven; Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2015, pp. 1161-1169


We consider classification problems in which the label space has structure. A common example is hierarchical label spaces, corresponding to the case where one label subsumes another (e.g., animal subsumes dog). But labels can also be mutually exclusive (e.g., dog vs cat) or unrelated (e.g., furry, carnivore). To jointly model hierarchy and exclusion relations, the notion of a HEX (hierarchy and exclusion) graph was introduced. This combined a conditional random field (CRF) with a deep neural network (DNN), resulting in state of the art results when applied to visual object classification problems where the training labels were drawn from different levels of the ImageNet hierarchy (e.g., an image might be labeled with the basic level category "dog", rather than the more specific label "husky"). In this paper, we extend the HEX model to allow for soft or probabilistic relations between labels, which is useful when there is uncertainty about the relationship between two labels (e.g., an antelope is "sort of" furry, but not to the same degree as a grizzly bear). We call our new model pHEX, for probabilistic HEX. We show that the pHEX graph can be converted to an Ising model, which allows us to use existing off-the-shelf inference methods (in contrast to the HEX method, which needed specialized inference algorithms). Experimental results show significant improvements in a number of large-scale visual object classification tasks, outperforming the previous HEX model.

Related Material

author = {Ding, Nan and Deng, Jia and Murphy, Kevin P. and Neven, Hartmut},
title = {Probabilistic Label Relation Graphs With Ising Models},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
month = {December},
year = {2015}