BIER - Boosting Independent Embeddings Robustly

Michael Opitz, Georg Waltner, Horst Possegger, Horst Bischof; Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2017, pp. 5189-5198


Learning similarity functions between image pairs with deep neural networks yields highly correlated activations of large embeddings. In this work, we show how to improve the robustness of embeddings by exploiting independence in ensembles. We divide the last embedding layer of a deep network into an embedding ensemble and formulate training this ensemble as an online gradient boosting problem. Each learner receives a reweighted training sample from the previous learners. This leverages large embedding sizes more effectively by significantly reducing correlation of the embedding and consequently increases retrieval accuracy of the embedding. Our method does not introduce any additional parameters and works with any differentiable loss function. We evaluate our metric learning method on image retrieval tasks and show that it improves over state-of-the-art methods on the CUB-200-2011, Cars-196, Stanford Online Products, In-Shop Clothes Retrieval and VehicleID datasets by a significant margin.

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author = {Opitz, Michael and Waltner, Georg and Possegger, Horst and Bischof, Horst},
title = {BIER - Boosting Independent Embeddings Robustly},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
month = {Oct},
year = {2017}