4D Spatio-Temporal ConvNets: Minkowski Convolutional Neural Networks

Christopher Choy, JunYoung Gwak, Silvio Savarese; The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2019, pp. 3075-3084

Abstract


In many robotics and VR/AR applications, 3D-videos are readily-available input sources (a sequence of depth images, or LIDAR scans). However, in many cases, the 3D-videos are processed frame-by-frame either through 2D convnets or 3D perception algorithms. In this work, we propose 4-dimensional convolutional neural networks for spatio-temporal perception that can directly process such 3D-videos using high-dimensional convolutions. For this, we adopt sparse tensors and propose generalized sparse convolutions that encompass all discrete convolutions. To implement the generalized sparse convolution, we create an open-source auto-differentiation library for sparse tensors that provides extensive functions for high-dimensional convolutional neural networks. We create 4D spatio-temporal convolutional neural networks using the library and validate them on various 3D semantic segmentation benchmarks and proposed 4D datasets for 3D-video perception. To overcome challenges in 4D space, we propose the hybrid kernel, a special case of the generalized sparse convolution, and trilateral-stationary conditional random fields that enforce spatio-temporal consistency in the 7D space-time-chroma space. Experimentally, we show that a convolutional neural network with only generalized 3D sparse convolutions can outperform 2D or 2D-3D hybrid methods by a large margin. Also, we show that on 3D-videos, 4D spatio-temporal convolutional neural networks are robust to noise and outperform the 3D convolutional neural network.

Related Material


[pdf] [supp]
[bibtex]
@InProceedings{Choy_2019_CVPR,
author = {Choy, Christopher and Gwak, JunYoung and Savarese, Silvio},
title = {4D Spatio-Temporal ConvNets: Minkowski Convolutional Neural Networks},
booktitle = {The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2019}
}