Shift: A Zero FLOP, Zero Parameter Alternative to Spatial Convolutions

Bichen Wu, Alvin Wan, Xiangyu Yue, Peter Jin, Sicheng Zhao, Noah Golmant, Amir Gholaminejad, Joseph Gonzalez, Kurt Keutzer; The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2018, pp. 9127-9135

Abstract


Neural networks rely on convolutions to aggregate spatial information. However, spatial convolutions are expensive in terms of model size and computation, both of which grow quadratically with respect to kernel size. In this paper, we present a parameter-free, FLOP-free "shift" operation as an alternative to spatial convolutions. We fuse shifts and point-wise convolutions to construct end-to-end trainable shift-based modules, with a hyperparameter characterizing the tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency. To demonstrate the operation's efficacy, we replace ResNet's 3x3 convolutions with shift-based modules for improved CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 accuracy using 60% fewer parameters; we additionally demonstrate the operation's resilience to parameter reduction on ImageNet, outperforming ResNet family members despite having millions fewer parameters. We further design a family of neural networks called ShiftNet, which achieve strong performance on classification, face verification and style transfer while demanding many fewer parameters.

Related Material


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[bibtex]
@InProceedings{Wu_2018_CVPR,
author = {Wu, Bichen and Wan, Alvin and Yue, Xiangyu and Jin, Peter and Zhao, Sicheng and Golmant, Noah and Gholaminejad, Amir and Gonzalez, Joseph and Keutzer, Kurt},
title = {Shift: A Zero FLOP, Zero Parameter Alternative to Spatial Convolutions},
booktitle = {The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2018}
}