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BOREx: Bayesian-Optimization--Based Refinement of Saliency Map for Image- and Video-Classification Models
Explaining a classification result produced by an image- and video-classification model is one of the important but challenging issues in computer vision. Many methods have been proposed for producing heat-map--based explanations for this purpose, including ones based on the white-box approach that uses the internal information of a model (e.g., LRP, Grad-CAM, and Grad-CAM++) and ones based on the black-box approach that does not use any internal information (e.g., LIME, SHAP, and RISE). We propose a new black-box method BOREx (Bayesian Optimization for Refinement of visual model EXplanation) to refine a heat map produced by any method. Our observation is that a heat-map--based explanation can be seen as a prior for an explanation method based on Bayesian optimization. Based on this observation, BOREx conducts Gaussian process regression (GPR) to estimate the saliency of each pixel in a given image starting from the one produced by another explanation method. Our experiments statistically demonstrate that the refinement by BOREx improves low-quality heat maps for image- and video-classification results.