Unsupervised Learning of Depth and Depth-of-Field Effect From Natural Images With Aperture Rendering Generative Adversarial Networks
Understanding the 3D world from 2D projected natural images is a fundamental challenge in computer vision and graphics. Recently, an unsupervised learning approach has garnered considerable attention owing to its advantages in data collection. However, to mitigate training limitations, typical methods need to impose assumptions for viewpoint distribution (e.g., a dataset containing various viewpoint images) or object shape (e.g., symmetric objects). These assumptions often restrict applications; for instance, the application to non-rigid objects or images captured from similar viewpoints (e.g., flower or bird images) remains a challenge. To complement these approaches, we propose aperture rendering generative adversarial networks (AR-GANs), which equip aperture rendering on top of GANs, and adopt focus cues to learn the depth and depth-of-field (DoF) effect of unlabeled natural images. To address the ambiguities triggered by unsupervised setting (i.e., ambiguities between smooth texture and out-of-focus blurs, and between foreground and background blurs), we develop DoF mixture learning, which enables the generator to learn real image distribution while generating diverse DoF images. In addition, we devise a center focus prior to guiding the learning direction. In the experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of AR-GANs in various datasets, such as flower, bird, and face images, demonstrate their portability by incorporating them into other 3D representation learning GANs, and validate their applicability in shallow DoF rendering.