Hierarchical Lovasz Embeddings for Proposal-Free Panoptic Segmentation

Tommi Kerola, Jie Li, Atsushi Kanehira, Yasunori Kudo, Alexis Vallet, Adrien Gaidon; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2021, pp. 14413-14423


Panoptic segmentation brings together two separate tasks: instance and semantic segmentation. Although they are related, unifying them faces an apparent paradox: how to learn simultaneously instance-specific and category-specific (i.e. instance-agnostic) representations jointly. Hence, state-of-the-art panoptic segmentation methods use complex models with a distinct stream for each task. In contrast, we propose Hierarchical Lovasz Embeddings, per pixel feature vectors that simultaneously encode instance- and category-level discriminative information. We use a hierarchical Lovasz hinge loss to learn a low-dimensional embedding space structured into a unified semantic and instance hierarchy without requiring separate network branches or object proposals. Besides modeling instances precisely in a proposal-free manner, our Hierarchical Lovasz Embeddings generalize to categories by using a simple Nearest-Class-Mean classifier, including for non-instance ""stuff"" classes where instance segmentation methods are not applicable. Our simple model achieves state-of-the-art results compared to existing proposal-free panoptic segmentation methods on Cityscapes, COCO, and Mapillary Vistas. Furthermore, our model demonstrates temporal stability between video frames.

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@InProceedings{Kerola_2021_CVPR, author = {Kerola, Tommi and Li, Jie and Kanehira, Atsushi and Kudo, Yasunori and Vallet, Alexis and Gaidon, Adrien}, title = {Hierarchical Lovasz Embeddings for Proposal-Free Panoptic Segmentation}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)}, month = {June}, year = {2021}, pages = {14413-14423} }