Layer-Wise Searching for 1-Bit Detectors
1-bit detectors show great promise for resource-constrained embedded devices but often suffer from a significant performance gap compared with their real-valued counterparts. The primary reason lies in the layer-wise error during binarization. This paper presents a layer-wise search (LWS) strategy to generate 1-bit detectors that maintain a performance very close to the original real-valued model. The approach introduces angular and amplitude angular error loss functions to increase detector capacity. At each layer, it exploits a differentiable binarization search (DBS) to minimize the angular error in a student-teacher framework. It then fine-tunes the scale parameter of that layer to reduce the amplitude error. Extensive experiments show that LWS-Det outperforms state-of-the-art 1-bit detectors by a considerable margin on the PASCAL VOC and COCO datasets. For example, the LWS-Det achieves 1-bit Faster-RCNN with ResNet-34 backbone within 2.0% mAP of its real-valued counterpart on the PASCAL VOC dataset.