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Exploiting Semantic Embedding and Visual Feature for Facial Action Unit Detection
Recent study on detecting facial action units (AU) has utilized auxiliary information (i.e., facial landmarks, relationship among AUs and expressions, web facial images, etc.), in order to improve the AU detection performance. As of now, no semantic information of AUs has yet been explored for such a task. As a matter of fact, AU semantic descriptions provide much more information than the binary AU labels alone, thus we propose to exploit the Semantic Embedding and Visual feature (SEV-Net) for AU detection. More specifically, AU semantic embeddings are obtained through both Intra-AU and Inter-AU attention modules, where the Intra-AU attention module captures the relation among words within each sentence that describes individual AU, and the Inter-AU attention module focuses on the relation among those sentences. The learned AU semantic embeddings are then used as guidance for the generation of attention maps through a cross-modality attention network. The generated cross-modality attention maps are further used as weights for the aggregated feature. Our proposed method is unique in that the semantic features are exploited as the first of this kind. The approach has been evaluated on three public AU-coded facial expression databases, and has achieved a superior performance than the state-of-the-art peer methods.