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Stacked Deep Multi-Scale Hierarchical Network for Fast Bokeh Effect Rendering From a Single Image
The Bokeh Effect is one of the most desirable effects in photography for rendering artistic and aesthetic photos. Usually, it requires a DSLR camera with different aperture and shutter settings and certain photography skills to generate this effect. In smartphones, computational methods and additional sensors are used to overcome the physical lens and sensor limitations to achieve such effect. Most of the existing methods utilized additional sensor's data or pretrained network for fine depth estimation of the scene and sometimes use portrait segmentation pretrained network module to segment salient objects in the image. Because of these reasons, networks have many parameters, become runtime intensive and unable to run in mid-range devices. In this paper, we used an end-to-end Deep Multi-Scale Hierarchical Network (DMSHN) model for direct Bokeh effect rendering of images captured from the monocular camera. To further improve the perceptual quality of such effect, a stacked model consisting of two DMSHN modules is also proposed. Our model does not rely on any pretrained network module for Monocular Depth Estimation or Saliency Detection, thus significantly reducing the size of model and run time. Stacked DMSHN achieves state-of-the-art results on a large scale EBB! dataset with around 6x less runtime compared to the current state-of-the-art model in processing HD quality images.