C-CAM: Causal CAM for Weakly Supervised Semantic Segmentation on Medical Image
Recently, many excellent weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) works are proposed based on class activation mapping (CAM). However, there are few works that consider the characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we find that there are mainly two challenges of medical images in WSSS: i) the boundary of object foreground and background is not clear; ii) the co-occurrence phenomenon is very severe in training stage. We thus propose a Causal CAM (C-CAM) method to overcome the above challenges. Our method is motivated by two cause-effect chains including category-causality chain and anatomy-causality chain. The category-causality chain represents the image content (cause) affects the category (effect). The anatomy-causality chain represents the anatomical structure (cause) affects the organ segmentation (effect). Extensive experiments were conducted on three public medical image data sets. Our C-CAM generates the best pseudo masks with the DSC of 77.26%, 80.34% and 78.15% on ProMRI, ACDC and CHAOS compared with other CAM-like methods. The pseudo masks of C-CAM are further used to improve the segmentation performance for organ segmentation tasks. Our C-CAM achieves DSC of 83.83% on ProMRI and DSC of 87.54% on ACDC, which outperforms state-of-the-art WSSS methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/Tian-lab/C-CAM.