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Panoptic Lifting for 3D Scene Understanding With Neural Fields
We propose Panoptic Lifting, a novel approach for learning panoptic 3D volumetric representations from images of in-the-wild scenes. Once trained, our model can render color images together with 3D-consistent panoptic segmentation from novel viewpoints. Unlike existing approaches which use 3D input directly or indirectly, our method requires only machine-generated 2D panoptic segmentation masks inferred from a pre-trained network. Our core contribution is a panoptic lifting scheme based on a neural field representation that generates a unified and multi-view consistent, 3D panoptic representation of the scene. To account for inconsistencies of 2D instance identifiers across views, we solve a linear assignment with a cost based on the model's current predictions and the machine-generated segmentation masks, thus enabling us to lift 2D instances to 3D in a consistent way. We further propose and ablate contributions that make our method more robust to noisy, machine-generated labels, including test-time augmentations for confidence estimates, segment consistency loss, bounded segmentation fields, and gradient stopping. Experimental results validate our approach on the challenging Hypersim, Replica, and ScanNet datasets, improving by 8.4, 13.8, and 10.6% in scene-level PQ over state of the art.