Stochastic Segmentation with Conditional Categorical Diffusion Models

Lukas Zbinden, Lars Doorenbos, Theodoros Pissas, Adrian Thomas Huber, Raphael Sznitman, Pablo Márquez-Neila; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2023, pp. 1119-1129


Semantic segmentation has made significant progress in recent years thanks to deep neural networks, but the common objective of generating a single segmentation output that accurately matches the image's content may not be suitable for safety-critical domains such as medical diagnostics and autonomous driving. Instead, multiple possible correct segmentation maps may be required to reflect the true distribution of annotation maps. In this context, stochastic semantic segmentation methods must learn to predict conditional distributions of labels given the image, but this is challenging due to the typically multimodal distributions, high-dimensional output spaces, and limited annotation data. To address these challenges, we propose a conditional categorical diffusion model (CCDM) for semantic segmentation based on Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models. Our model is conditioned to the input image, enabling it to generate multiple segmentation label maps that account for the aleatoric uncertainty arising from divergent ground truth annotations. Our experimental results show that CCDM achieves state-of-the-art performance on LIDC, a stochastic semantic segmentation dataset, and outperforms established baselines on the classical segmentation dataset Cityscapes.

Related Material

[pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
@InProceedings{Zbinden_2023_ICCV, author = {Zbinden, Lukas and Doorenbos, Lars and Pissas, Theodoros and Huber, Adrian Thomas and Sznitman, Raphael and M\'arquez-Neila, Pablo}, title = {Stochastic Segmentation with Conditional Categorical Diffusion Models}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)}, month = {October}, year = {2023}, pages = {1119-1129} }