Model-Agnostic Metric for Zero-Shot Learning

Jiayi Shen, Haochen Wang, Anran Zhang, Qiang Qiu, Xiantong Zhen, Xianbin Cao; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 2020, pp. 786-795


Zero-shot Learning (ZSL) aims to learn a classifier to recognize unseen categories without training samples. Most ZSL works based on embedding models handle the visual space and the semantic space through a common metric space and then apply a simple nearest neighbor search which directly leads to the hubness problem, one of the main challenges of ZSL. Contrary to recent works, whose conclusions about hubs are drawn based on Euclidean and specific models like ridge regression, we adopt cosine metric and for the first time prove cosine is model-agnostic to alleviate the hubness problem in ZSL. Assuming that the normalized mapped semantic vectors follow a uniform distribution, we provide theoretical analysis which demonstrates that hubs can be better reduced with a higher-dimensional cosine metric space. Moreover, we introduce a diversity-based regularizer with the cosine metric which underpins the assumption about the uniform distribution and further improves the model's discriminative ability. Extensive experiments on five benchmark datasets and large-scale Imagenet dataset show that our method can consistently improve the performance, surpassing previous embedding methods by large margins.

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author = {Shen, Jiayi and Wang, Haochen and Zhang, Anran and Qiu, Qiang and Zhen, Xiantong and Cao, Xianbin},
title = {Model-Agnostic Metric for Zero-Shot Learning},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV)},
month = {March},
year = {2020}