Budget-Aware Deep Semantic Video Segmentation

Behrooz Mahasseni, Sinisa Todorovic, Alan Fern; Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017, pp. 1029-1038


In this work, we study a poorly understood trade-off between accuracy and runtime costs for deep semantic video segmentation. While recent work has demonstrated advantages of learning to speed-up deep activity detection, it is not clear if similar advantages will hold for our very different segmentation loss function, which is defined over individual pixels across the frames. In deep video segmentation, the most time consuming step represents the application of a CNN to every frame for assigning class labels to every pixel, typically taking 6-9 times of the video footage. This motivates our new budget-aware framework that learns to optimally select a small subset of frames for pixelwise labeling by a CNN, and then efficiently interpolates the obtained segmentations to yet unprocessed frames. This interpolation may use either a simple optical-flow guided mapping of pixel labels, or another significantly less complex and thus faster CNN. We formalize the frame selection as a Markov Decision Process, and specify a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network to model a policy for selecting the frames. For training the LSTM, we develop a policy-gradient reinforcement-learning approach for approximating the gradient of our non-decomposable and non-differentiable objective. Evaluation on two benchmark video datasets show that our new framework is able to significantly reduce computation time, and maintain competitive video segmentation accuracy under varying budgets.

Related Material

author = {Mahasseni, Behrooz and Todorovic, Sinisa and Fern, Alan},
title = {Budget-Aware Deep Semantic Video Segmentation},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {July},
year = {2017}