- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
CAMERAS: Enhanced Resolution and Sanity Preserving Class Activation Mapping for Image Saliency
Backpropagation image saliency aims at explaining model predictions by estimating model-centric importance of individual pixels in the input. However, class-insensitivity of the earlier layers in a network only allows saliency computation with low resolution activation maps of the deeper layers, resulting in compromised image saliency. Remedifying this can lead to sanity failures. We propose CAMERAS, a technique to compute high-fidelity backpropagation saliency maps without requiring any external priors and preserving the map sanity. Our method systematically performs multi-scale accumulation and fusion of the activation maps and backpropagated gradients to compute precise saliency maps. From accurate image saliency to articulation of relative importance of input features for different models, and precise discrimination between model perception of visually similar objects, our high-resolution mapping offers multiple novel insights into the black-box deep visual models, which are presented in the paper. We also demonstrate the utility of our saliency maps in adversarial setup by drastically reducing the norm of attack signals by focusing them on the precise regions identified by our maps. Our method also inspires new evaluation metrics and a sanity check for this developing research direction.