- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
Generating Diverse Structure for Image Inpainting With Hierarchical VQ-VAE
Given an incomplete image without additional constraint, image inpainting natively allows for multiple solutions as long as they appear plausible. Recently, multiple-solution inpainting methods have been proposed and shown the potential of generating diverse results. However, these methods have difficulty in ensuring the quality of each solution, e.g. they produce distorted structure and/or blurry texture. We propose a two-stage model for diverse inpainting, where the first stage generates multiple coarse results each of which has a different structure, and the second stage refines each coarse result separately by augmenting texture. The proposed model is inspired by the hierarchical vector quantized variational auto-encoder (VQ-VAE), whose hierarchical architecture disentangles structural and textural information. In addition, the vector quantization in VQ-VAE enables autoregressive modeling of the discrete distribution over the structural information. Sampling from the distribution can easily generate diverse and high-quality structures, making up the first stage of our model. In the second stage, we propose a structural attention module inside the texture generation network, where the module utilizes the structural information to capture distant correlations. We further reuse the VQ-VAE to calculate two feature losses, which help improve structure coherence and texture realism, respectively. Experimental results on CelebA-HQ, Places2, and ImageNet datasets show that our method not only enhances the diversity of the inpainting solutions but also improves the visual quality of the generated multiple images. Code and models are available at: https://github.com/USTC-JialunPeng/Diverse-Structure-Inpainting.