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Boosting Ensemble Accuracy by Revisiting Ensemble Diversity Metrics
Neural network ensembles are gaining popularity by harnessing the complementary wisdom of multiple base models. Ensemble teams with high diversity promote high failure independence, which is effective for boosting the overall ensemble accuracy. This paper provides an in-depth study on how to design and compute ensemble diversity, which can capture the complementary decision capacity of ensemble member models. We make three original contributions. First, we revisit the ensemble diversity metrics in the literature and analyze the inherent problems of poor correlation between ensemble diversity and ensemble accuracy, which leads to the low quality ensemble selection using such diversity metrics. Second, instead of computing diversity scores for ensemble teams of different sizes using the same criteria, we introduce focal model based ensemble diversity metrics, coined as FQ-diversity metrics. Our new metrics significantly improve the intrinsic correlation between high ensemble diversity and high ensemble accuracy. Third, we introduce a diversity fusion method, coined as the EQ-diversity metric, by integrating the top three most representative FQ-diversity metrics. Comprehensive experiments on two benchmark datasets (CIFAR-10 and ImageNet) show that our FQ and EQ diversity metrics are effective for selecting high diversity ensemble teams to boost overall ensemble accuracy.