- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
Improving Weakly Supervised Temporal Action Localization by Bridging Train-Test Gap in Pseudo Labels
The task of weakly supervised temporal action localization targets at generating temporal boundaries for actions of interest, meanwhile the action category should also be classified. Pseudo-label-based methods, which serve as an effective solution, have been widely studied recently. However, existing methods generate pseudo labels during training and make predictions during testing under different pipelines or settings, resulting in a gap between training and testing. In this paper, we propose to generate high-quality pseudo labels from the predicted action boundaries. Nevertheless, we note that existing post-processing, like NMS, would lead to information loss, which is insufficient to generate high-quality action boundaries. More importantly, transforming action boundaries into pseudo labels is quite challenging, since the predicted action instances are generally overlapped and have different confidence scores. Besides, the generated pseudo-labels can be fluctuating and inaccurate at the early stage of training. It might repeatedly strengthen the false predictions if there is no mechanism to conduct self-correction. To tackle these issues, we come up with an effective pipeline for learning better pseudo labels. Firstly, we propose a Gaussian weighted fusion module to preserve information of action instances and obtain high-quality action boundaries. Second, we formulate the pseudo-label generation as an optimization problem under the constraints in terms of the confidence scores of action instances. Finally, we introduce the idea of Delta pseudo labels, which enables the model with the ability of self-correction. Our method achieves superior performance to existing methods on two benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet1.3, achieving gains of 1.9% on THUMOS14 and 3.7% on ActivityNet1.3 in terms of average mAP.