iDAG: Invariant DAG Searching for Domain Generalization

Zenan Huang, Haobo Wang, Junbo Zhao, Nenggan Zheng; Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2023, pp. 19169-19179


Existing machine learning (ML) models are often fragile in open environments because the data distribution frequently shifts. To address this problem, domain generalization (DG) aims to explore underlying invariant patterns for stable prediction across domains. In this work, we first characterize that this failure of conventional ML models in DG is attributed to an inadequate identification of causal structures. We further propose a novel and theoretically grounded invariant Directed Acyclic Graph (dubbed iDAG) searching framework that attains an invariant graphical relation as the proxy to the causality structure from the intrinsic data-generating process. To enable tractable computation, iDAG solves a constrained optimization objective built on a set of representative class-conditional prototypes. Additionally, we integrate a hierarchical contrastive learning module, which poses a strong effect of clustering, for enhanced prototypes as well as stabler prediction. Extensive experiments on the synthetic and real-world benchmarks demonstrate that iDAG outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches, verifying the superiority of causal structure identification for DG. The code of iDAG is available at

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@InProceedings{Huang_2023_ICCV, author = {Huang, Zenan and Wang, Haobo and Zhao, Junbo and Zheng, Nenggan}, title = {iDAG: Invariant DAG Searching for Domain Generalization}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)}, month = {October}, year = {2023}, pages = {19169-19179} }