- [pdf] [supp] [arXiv]
Boosting Semi-Supervised Learning by Bridging high and low-Confidence Predictions
Pseudo-labeling is a crucial technique in semi-supervised learning (SSL), where artificial labels are generated for unlabeled data by a trained model, allowing for the simultaneous training of labeled and unlabeled data in a supervised setting. However, several studies have identified three main issues with pseudo-labeling-based approaches. Firstly, these methods heavily rely on predictions from the trained model, which may not always be accurate, leading to a confirmation bias problem. Secondly, the trained model may be overfitted to easy-to-learn examples, ignoring hard-to-learn ones, resulting in the "Matthew effect" where the already strong become stronger and the weak weaker. Thirdly, most of the low-confidence predictions of unlabeled data are discarded due to the use of a high threshold, leading to an underutilization of unlabeled data during training. To address these issues, we propose a new method called ReFixMatch, which aims to utilize all of the unlabeled data during training, thus improving the generalizability of the model and performance on SSL benchmarks. Notably, ReFixMatch achieves 41.05% top-1 accuracy with 100k labeled examples on ImageNet, outperforming the baseline FixMatch and current state-of-the-art methods.